Basic Concepts in Inductive Reasoning

Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum,

 

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Read the assigned sections in Chapters 5 and 6 in your course textbook:

5.1: Basic Concepts in Inductive Reasoning

5.2: Statistical Arguments: Statistical Syllogisms

5.3: Statistical Arguments: Inductive Generalizations

5.6: Arguments from Authority

5.7: Arguments from Analogy

Chapter 5 Summary

6.4: Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico-Deductive Method

6.5: Inference to the Best Explanation

Complete the Mastery Tutorial Module 3 (Amplifire)

Watch the following videos:

What Is an Inductive Argument? (Links to an external site.)

What Is a STRONG Argument? (Links to an external site.)

Inductive Reasoning (Links to an external site.)

Inferences to the Best Explanation (Links to an external site.)

Your instructor will choose the discussion question and post it as the first post in the discussion forum. In your initial post, address all the elements in the prompt as thoroughly as you can.

 

In the required reading this week we learned about the following inductive argument forms: Appeals to authority, arguments from analogy, statistical syllogisms, inductive generalizations, and inferences to the best explanation.

 

Choose one of these forms and discuss what can make for good arguments of that type. Provide at least one good example (in standard form) and one bad example of this type of argument and explain what makes each of them good or bad. How do we know if an argument of this form is strong or weak in general? What can we do better to evaluate instances of this form when they occur in daily life?

 

Please follow instructions carefully

 

 

 

FEED BACK FROM MY INTRUCTOR: On the last discussion, this is what he said:

Ronda, your arguments give compelling reasons for some of the premises you have reached, but the logic needs to be “tighter” as these are not valid arguments. Also, be sure to present the arguments clearly in standard form. So, let me give you a couple examples of valid arguments:

 

If sex education decreases the rate of teenage pregnancies, then it should be taught in schools.

 

Sex education decreases the rate of teenage pregnancies.

 

Therefore, sex education should be taught in schools.

 

Notice how IF the two premises are true the conclusion MUST be true. This means the argument is a valid deductive argument. And notice that anyone reading the first two premises will come to exactly this conclusion. This is the type of “tightness of reasoning” you need to aim for as you develop and revise your arguments (for example, on this week’s assignment).

 

Here is another example:

 

Sex education decreases the amount of STIs in teenagers and young adults.

 

Whatever decreases the amount of STIs in teenagers and young adults is important to teach.

 

Therefore, sex education is important to teach.

 

Again, IF it is true that sex education decreases the amount of STIs in teenagers and young adults, and IF it is true that whatever decreases the amount of STIs in teenagers and young adults is important to teach, then it MUST BE TRUE that sex education is important to teach. This means the argument is valid since a valid argument is just one in which the premises GUARANTEE the truth of the conclusion.

 

Try revising one of your arguments above or writing a new argument, in standard form, that is valid.

 

 

That was about this post:

 

Deductive arguments about why sex education should be taught in school

 

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Teenage moms are more likely to drop out of high school, live in poverty, rely on public assistance, and be in bad health as a result of their pregnancy.

 

Studies provide those teenagers who receive sexual education from a younger age have lower cases of teenage pregnancies and STDs s compared to those who did not get sexual education (Stranger-Hall & Hall, 2011).

 

Statistic from various reliable sources provides that most parents and children are afraid or uncomfortable talking about sexual education (CDC, 2010).

 

Children may get confused and mentally unstable when they start experiencing changes in their bodies during the adolescent stage and adulthood.

 

Conclusions

 

Therefore, there is a need to provide sexual education in school as this will help in enlightening the teenagers about sex, contraceptives, and control hence reducing the risk of unwanted pregnancies. Most teenage mothers are likely to drop out of school in order to take care of the kids which exposes them to a lack of employment and poverty in the long run.

 

Proper sexual education at an early stage is vital as this helps in preparing the children about the changes that they might experience hence enabling them to make sound decisions. Therefore, there is a need to incorporate sexual education in school to circumvent these problems.

 

The third premise indicates that parents and children are afraid of sexual discussions. Therefore, introducing these discussions in school can help the student to get reliable and vital information about their body and sex hence ensuring healthy sexual development.

 

The last premise indicates that lack of sexual education may facilitate to development of mental problems, social problems, and confusion among the children. This is evident because children with no confidence about their body and sex may fall prey to bullies and social pressure which may lead to unwanted pregnancies and STDs infections. Therefore, sexual education in school can help in empowering the children hence preparing them with vital skills for healthy development and effective decision-making abilities.

 

References

 

CDC (2010). Educating Teenagers About Sex in the United States. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db44.htm (Links to an external site.)

 

Stanger-Hall, K. F. & Hall, D. W. (October 2011). Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S. PLoS ONE,6(10). DOI: 10.137/journal.prone.0024658


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