Prof. He explains three main approaches to combating corruption namely the bottom up approach, which involves the mobilization and empowerment of the masses to fight graft in the public services; the mass movement approach which empowers the masses but without any institutional support, and finally the top down approach55. Within this section the top down approach will be analyzed Vis a Vis the Kazakhstan scenario. It is imperative to state that the top down approach incorporates the localization of graft laws and institutions, creation of state controlled ant graft institutions and a notable level of legal reforms all aimed at combating public administrative graft.
While the top down approach is not primarily limited to any community, the Anti Corruption Resource Centre argues that this approach, prevalent in Muslim states due to their hierarchical nature56, requires the creation of national anti graft institutions57. The purpose of these institutions is to allow for the necessary legal, political as well as social framework to combat crime. Furthermore, such institutions allow local governments to have a firmer grip in anti corruption activities as well as creating the necessary framework for cooperation with international anti graft institutions58. In Kazakhstani scenarios tends to conform to the requirements of the top down approach since the Kazakhstani government has created a number of institutions to support anti graft efforts. These institutions include â€˜Financial Policeâ€™Â which play a key role in the implementation of all anti graft policies,Â â€˜Coordinating Council of Law Enforcement Agenciesâ€™Â charged with ensuring effective law enforcement including the necessary anti graft legal reforms and ACCERB, and public service auditing committee with thru primary role of overseeing efficiency in public spending. There are others such as the office of the ombudsman which observes due respect to all human rights as well as the Kazakhstani ministry of finance which performs similar roles to the ACCERB
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